Process of evaluation of an academic article or book, prior to publication to ensure a certain standard of quality. Peers are experts in the article’s subject or discipline. There are many ways of reviewing, e.g. double blind peer review, board reviews and more recently open review, or other forms such as post-publication peer review. There is no global standard for peer review. It’s all about being transparant about the procedure(s). Journals and publishers should state on their homepage what model they use.