What is Open Access?
WHAT IS ACRL TECHCONNECT BLOG?
Welcome to ACRL TechConnect, your source for technology-related content from the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) along with C&RL News magazine. ACRL TechConnect is a moderated peer-reviewed blog produced by a group of academic librarians. ACRL TechConnect also contains information on ACRL technology-related events, professional development opportunities, publications, articles, podcasts, and communities.
ACRL TechConnect Blog is a moderated blog run by a group of academic librarians, who are interested in discussing technology topics in the context of libraries and innovation. We’ll be covering innovative projects, emerging tech tools, computer programming, usability, design, new and notable trends in technology in the context of academic libraries, and more!
Attribution – This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the most accommodating of licenses offered, in terms of what others can do with your works licensed under Attribution.
Attribution Share Alike – This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work even for commercial reasons, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms. This license is often compared to open source software licenses. All new works based on yours will carry the same license, so any derivatives will also allow commercial use.
Attribution No Derivatives – This license allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to you.
Attribution Non-Commercial – This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.
Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike
This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms. Others can download and redistribute your work just like the by-nc-nd license, but they can also translate, make remixes, and produce new stories based on your work. All new work based on yours will carry the same license, so any derivatives will also be non-commercial in nature.
Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives
This license is the most restrictive of our six main licenses, allowing redistribution. This license is often called the “free advertising” license because it allows others to download your works and share them with others as long as they mention you and link back to you, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.
What is a MOOC?
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are free online courses available for anyone to enroll. MOOCs provide an affordable and flexible way to learn new skills, advance your career and deliver quality educational experiences at scale.
Open Educational Resources (OER) are freely available online materials that anyone can use for learning and/or teaching. Examples are courses- including MOOCs (Massive Online Open Course), lectures, teaching materials, assignments and various other resources. OERs are available in many different formats compatible with online usage most obviously text, images, audio and video.
Anyone with internet access can access and use OERs; access is not dependent on location or membership of a particular institution. OERs are particularly useful for researchers, teachers and learners. Educational institutions and providers enhance their websites by creating and maintaining access to OERs and service providers such as iTunes U, SlideShare, YouTube and Jorum also have many OERs to offer.
OERs use Creative Commons (CC) licenses to ensure that materials can be used in a wide variety of ways e.g. edited, remixed, enhanced and copied.
Open Access (OA) refers to freely available content permanently online such as scholarly articles and journals. These resources can be reused and there is some scope for alteration. OER, on the other hand, encourages remixing and redistibution of the resource and covers a much wider range of materials.
As I was conducting some research for a project I am working on, I became puzzled by the differences between Open Access (OA) materials and Open Educational Resources (OER). I did some digging and here is what I discovered:
Open Educational Resources (OER) and Open Access (OA) are closely related. The basic difference between them is the purpose for which they were created.
The Creative Commons Wiki offers a variety of definitions of OER from credible sources such as the OECD, UNESCO, and the OER commons, among others (https://wiki.creativecommons.org/wiki/What_is_OER%3F)
One of the more popular definitions says OER “are teaching and learning resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use…” (The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation website). The purpose of OERs is mainly for teaching and learning. They can include pedagogical materials, activities, lesson plans, and so on. The OER Commons (https://www.oercommons.org/) offers a multitude of resources for educators through a freely available open digital library.
Suber (2012) offers this definition of OA: “Open access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions” (p. 4). OA can often refer to research materials or other literature.
The lines between what counts as OER or OA can be blurred. Some textbooks are considered OA, even though their primary purpose is for teaching and learning. It seems that some OER can be considered OA, but not all OA fall under the umbrella of OER. Open Access (OA) seems to be a broader, more inclusive term, but OER has gained popularity in recent years, due in a large part to the support of President Obama for Open Education initiatives and resources.
The key is not to get hung up on whether material is better categorized as OER or OA, but to focus on the important underlying intention of the work as being openly and freely available. For both OER and OA, the key common denominator is “open”.
Sarah Elaine Eaton, University of Calgary
Understanding the difference between OA and OER http://wp.me/pNAh3-1PJ
OA Publishing Tools and Systems: 3 things you need to consider
If you’re working with a scholarly organization or group of researchers to run an academic-led open access (OA) journal, you’re likely approaching all areas of journal management with the same core question in mind: How can we maximize our limited time and resources to keep improving our journal and expanding its reach? In order to meet the needs of readers and grow your journal, you need to be able to produce modern articles on a budget and with limited editorial resources.
Ultimately, the success of your OA journal will depend on the publishing tools and systems you leverage to maximize your efforts. Your journal team should seek tools and services that you can easily manage and that will enable you to keep up with the evolving digital publishing landscape.
There are certain considerations OA journal teams should keep in mind when choosing which peer review and publishing tools and systems to use. In this post, we outline 3 things to consider.
Technical barriers and available support
As part of an OA journal team, you’ll likely need to set aside time for a variety of tasks related to peer review management, production, and even marketing. Most of these uses of time will be essential, but some may be avoidable. Given the breadth of tasks you face, it’s vital to identify areas that can be simplified. Journals can streamline their workflows with the right combination of online tools and services to help manage the main parts of the peer review and publishing process: accepting submissions, tracking revisions, typesetting articles, and maintaining a professional publication website.
Journals should choose tools and services based on their particular needs, knowing that not all options will work for every publication. For example, while journals with access to technical support via their organizational publisher may be able to handle journal management software and a publication website that requires local hosting, setup, and maintenance, such solutions will not be the best choice for journals with small teams that have no internal technical resources. If you’re a small journal struggling to configure journal management software or build your own website, make sure you’re thinking long term. Will you be able to feasibly scale your efforts to improve your web presence and publish more articles in the future? If the answer is – “we’re already struggling to keep up with what we have!” – then it may be time to look for a simpler technical solution. When determining which tools and services you’ll use to manage peer review and publishing at your OA journal, think about how much time the options you’re considering will require you to spend, now and in the future, either doing manual work or configuring and learning technology.
Some common pitfalls journals should avoid are:
- Using software for peer review and/or publishing that has a high learning curve (this will often result in one or more team members becoming “power users” whom everyone relies on – when they’re unavailable or move on it can cause problems)
- Using software that does not come with technical support, at the very least for editors (ideally seek support for reviewers and authors too so you don’t have to field technical questions)
- Trying to do too many manual tasks, like having your editors typeset every article in Adobe InDesign (this likely won’t scale)
- Saving up to outsource software configuration or journal website design to an external web developer but not factoring in future maintenance costs (the internet is changing your journal will need to keep up!)
- Not considering the experience of authors, reviewers, and readers when selecting software and designing a journal website – clunky journal software and dated websites won’t attract scholars to your journal
If you’re using software, ask yourself if you can handle its technical requirements. For any area that you’re handling manually, ask yourself if you could automate that work with journal software or find an affordable service to do it for you. As a general rule, if you’re spending a good chunk of time trying to keep up with your journal tools or to manually track manuscripts and produce articles, you should consider where you can improve your process.
Real and hidden costs
Related to questions about your journal’s technical solutions are real and hidden costs. All of the journal management tools you use will have upfront costs and behind the scenes costs to think about. Upfront costs are of course the costs directly associated with a software or service. Hidden costs are the expenditures that indirectly come from the software or services you use (or don’t)– these can be easy to overlook. For example, if you’re publishing one or more OA journals through a university library and relying on the library’s internal IT team to maintain your journal management software and websites, while the system you’re using may technically be “free” the time cost of your institutional IT resources is still an expense for your organization.
OA journal publishers should be attuned to the time costs associated with the tools and services they use and whether they are taking away from their organization’s or editors’ ability to complete or start other important projects. If you have dedicated resources just for journal support, your current system may be fine, but if you’re stretching internal resources to keep up with journal needs you may find that there are greater costs associated with your system than what meets the eye. In this case, you may be better off allocating funds towards affordable peer review and publishing software that doesn’t require so much internal upkeep.
Journals should be cognizant of how their operational costs impact authors. For example, if your journal opts to use expensive peer review and publishing software or services you may have to charge relatively high article processing charges (APCs) to cover costs. If you find that your team is in this situation, it’s important to consider if a more affordable alternative could do the same job. High APCs can limit the variety and global reach of the research in your journal since many authors have limited or no access to APC funds. Ideally, you should be able to operate your journal with low APCs, submission fees, or grants or institutional subsidies.
The gap between peer review and publishing
In developing your OA journal management strategy, you’ll also need to consider the relationship between peer review and publishing. Journals can sometimes silo peer review and publishing and separately look for software and services in each area without thinking about if and how they will be able to connect. It’s important to consider how well your journal is set up to move manuscripts from decision to publication. If the software and services you’re using are completely separate you may be creating extra work for your team.
Some signs of disconnected peer review and publishing systems to try and avoid are:
- Having to download manuscripts from one system and reupload them to another
- Editors not being able to communicate with each other in either or both their peer review and publishing systems (ideally all communication should be stored in one place, not scattered between different systems and email)
- Manuscripts not retaining metadata assigned to them in your peer review system when they move to publishing (editors shouldn’t have to manually add metadata stored in peer review software to published articles)
Journals should aim to centralize their peer review and publishing tools to enable editors to work faster. Integrated peer review and publishing tools can also reduce the likelihood of errors and save time costs.
Overall it’s about flexibility and forward thinking
In all of your decision making around OA journal publishing, it’s important to step back and ask: “Do we have room for growth?” The key software and service considerations we’ve discussed all stem from this question. In order to be successful, you need to set your journal on a publishing path that will enable you to keep scaling submissions, building out your editorial processes, and modernizing your online presence. The level of technical work you take on, the real and hidden costs of the tools you use (or lack thereof), and the time between your peer review and publishing process will all greatly impact your publication’s performance and development.
The open access movement offers a number of advantages to people cutting across all sections of society.
Most journals and repositories do not impose access costs on the reader. Thus price barriers are substantially lowered or removed entirely. Authors are thus granted the ability to address a wider audience without the corresponding expenditure. The reach of the articles or materials increases tremendously since readers can retrieve it regardless of their economic status or geographical location.
The research results can be made immediately available to not just others within that community but also those beyond, including other scientists and laypeople.
The quick proliferation of results not only enlivens similar research but also inspires others to make inroads into other areas which may open up as a consequence. Easy access to research material from all fields spurs interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research endeavors.
Impact and Citations
Articles tend to have a much bigger impact in the short-term compared to “subscription-only” work. The long-term impact has been found to be similar, with some studies showing a slightly larger impact for open-access articles.
An article can typically be more easily located if it is in the open-access domain. In particular, searching within the article or recommending and sharing it with others, is facilitated to a great extent.
Modes of Availability
In the open-access model, research material need not be restricted to articles only, unlike traditional publishing. Any kind of digital content, including text, images, raw and processed data, audio/video and software can be part of a digital archive.
Author and Institution Visibility
More readers can become aware of authors who publish in open access journals as opposed to subscription-only journals. Institutions can enhance their profile by participating in or hosting open-access publishing. Funding agencies supporting the research can achieve more prominence.
Since open-access publications are usually less expensive to produce and disseminate, both journals and publishers can benefit. In some cases, authors may be required to pay enhanced publication charges. Many traditional publishers have made part of their material open access which has enhanced their visibility and attracted subscriptions.